Addiction Incorporated

Addiction Incorporated

Scientists gather to observe a rather animated test subject in a re-enactment from ADDICTION INCORPORATED, a film by Charles Evans Jr. Picture courtesy Acappella Pictures. All rights reserved.

Addiction Incorporated (2011)

Opened: 12/14/2011 Limited

Awards Screeni...10/14/2011 - 10/20/20117 days
Film Forum/NYC12/14/2011 - 12/27/201114 days
Landmark Nuart01/13/2012 - 01/19/20127 days
Kendall Square...02/24/2012 - 03/01/20127 days

Trailer: Click for trailer

Websites: Home

Genre: Biographical Documentary

Rated: PG for thematic material involving smoking and addiction, and for some language.


The explosive story of Victor DeNoble, one of the most important and influential whistleblowers of all time, comes to the big screen in ADDICTION INCORPORATED.

In the 1980s, DeNoble was a research scientist at a major tobacco company, where he was tasked with finding a substitute for nicotine that would not cause heart attacks. His quest was to discover if it would be possible to create a cigarette that would be safer for smokers (although not necessarily less addictive). DeNoble succeeded, but in the process produced something that many suspected was true, but the industry had been denying for years: scientific evidence that nicotine was addictive. This set off a chain of events that still reverberates today.

In an act of modern-day heroism, DeNoble took his findings to the people despite being subject to a strict confidentiality agreement, testifying about his research in the infamous 1994 Congressional hearings--the same ones where the seven heads of the major tobacco companies declared that nicotine was not addictive. In the end, an unprecedented alliance of journalists, politicians, attorneys, and whistleblowers banded together to achieve what was once considered impossible: the first ever federal regulation of the tobacco industry.

They all come together to tell their stories in ADDICTION INCORPORATED- a personal story of one man risking everything to make a difference, shaking up a powerful industry and saving countless lives along the way, set against the backdrop of billion-dollar lawsuits and massive scientific conspiracy.

Director's Statement

I set out to tell the story of a man who wants to use science to improve peoples' lives. As the film's title suggests, ADDICTION INCORPORATED went on to share its central focus with the tobacco industry. The story of a determined scientist, Victor DeNoble, who sets out to do good, is woven into the decline of an industry that produces one of the most lethal products on earth.

I first saw Victor DeNoble on CSPAN answering a subcommittee's questions. His testimony was dramatic because he flatly contradicted testimony in that same chamber by seven CEO's. Their position (nicotine was "not addictive") had been coordinated and brazen but had never been contradicted by someone who spoke with authority.

Victor became the first to publicly speak of his work for "the industry." He told of an ambitious R&D program whose mandate was to maximize the addictiveness of cigarettes. The oversight hearing was now a crime scene and as the reputations and fortunes of tobacco companies plummeted, I got to know Victor and optioned the rights to make a film of his life.

When the tobacco companies did not crash and burn, as you expect from a studio movie's climax, I understood the film would have to be a documentary.

As I researched the history of tobacco production, litigation, illness, etc. the film's subject expanded. While everyone knows it's a problem, my takeaway was the film had to introduce a solution. So near film's end, I spotlight FDA's current authority to reduce nicotine in cigarettes to levels that would not sustain addiction. For the sake of momentum, I did not cite the polls that found 70% of Americans, smokers included, would approve of said nicotine reduction. Most people, smokers included, don't want future generations to smoke. I want ADDICTION INCORPORATED to spark that debate.

-- Charles Evans, Jr.

Victor DeNoble's Statement

Scientists do research with the hope that we will have a positive impact on people's lives. I thought I would have that opportunity when I went to work at the Philip Morris Research Center. I never dreamed that our research would be suppressed for over ten years and that it would take a major federal investigation, congressional hearings, and acts of Congress before my hope would be fulfilled.

Seventeen years ago, when Charlie approached me about doing a documentary, I didn't think there was even a story. I did not see the historical value of these events as they were unfolding, Charlie did! I underestimated Charlie's commitment and his passion for the project. Working on this documentary helped me to realize how many hundreds, if not thousands, of people came together with a mission to create this public health policy change. This documentary weaves together a multitude of events; the result of which will be felt for decades to come.

My parents nurtured in me a desire to help people. It's the reason I became a scientist and the reason I teach kids science. I have dyslexia and ADHD. When I was a kid, there was no understanding of what they were. School, learning and just paying attention were always a struggle. I was told I was stupid and that I may not graduate high school, much less go to college. I believed it and I was wrong. What motivates me today, is reaching out to kids who feel they can't go beyond high school and show them that they have more opportunities open to them than they think.

This documentary isn't the end of a story; it's just the first chapter of the events that led to the changes we've seen to the health policy within the United States. The next chapters have begun to unfold with continued changes, not only in our Nation, but also with changes in public health policy in other nations around the world.

-- Victor DeNoble

Charles Evans Jr. Biography

At age nine, Charles Evans Jr.'s first film work was clearing 16mm trim bins (reconstituting picture and sound scraps) for his mother, documentarian Frances Evans, while she edited.

Evans earned his undergraduate degree at UC-Berkley with a major in "Short Story Writing." His thesis, a collection of short stories, won the University's Eisner Prize For Literature.

Evans went on to complete the production program at University of Southern California's film school. He wrote, produced and directed his thesis, "Second Son." Shot in 35mm, the film went on to win twelve awards including the Grand Prix at Clermont-Ferrand's competition.

Evans worked for two years at Touchstone Pictures as Director of Development for Randall Kleiser Productions, before founding Acappella Pictures in March, 1993.

Evans produced Johnny Depp's directorial debut, THE BRAVE, based on the novel by Gregory Mcdonald. Johnny and Marlon Brando starred. The production was an official selection for competition in the 1997 Cannes Film Festival.

Evans' enduring commitment to produce a film on the life of Howard Hughes resulted in THE AVIATOR (2004, BAFTA, Golden Globes).

In his directorial debut, ADDICTION INCORPORATED, he tells the true story of how Victor DeNoble's unexpected discovery of an addiction ingredient in tobacco leads to both more addictive Marlboro cigarettes and Congressional testimony. The public revelation of long held tobacco industry secrets leads journalists, politicians, attorneys and whistleblowers into an unexpected alliance, that achieves the first ever federal regulation of the tobacco industry.

Interviewee Biographies

Victor J. DeNoble

Dr. DeNoble received his Doctorate degree in 1976 in the field of Experimental Psychology from Adelphi University. He held postdoctoral fellowships from both the National Institute of Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse at Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York and the National Institute of Drug Abuse at the University of Minnesota. In 1980, while still a postdoctoral fellow, DeNoble was recruited by Philip Morris Inc. to establish a Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory to support a nicotine analogue program to study the behavioral and physiological effects nicotine. Following his abrupt dismissal from Philip Morris in 1984, DeNoble worked in drug discovery for the DuPont Merck Pharmaceutical Company and Ayerst Research Laboratories, specializing in the area of Central Nervous System Diseases. In 1994, after a congressional release from his confidentiality agreement with Philip Morris, DeNoble became the first "whistle-blower" to begin tearing down the wall of secrecy built by the tobacco industry. He was a key witness in the federal government's case against the industry and has testified before Congress, the Food and Drug Administration and former Vice President Al Gore's Tobacco Settlement Committee. Currently, DeNoble is the Vice President of Hissho, Inc., a scientific and medical communications company.

Paul C. Mele

Paul Mele, Ph.D., received a B.S. in biology and psychology from Union College, and a Doctorate in Experimental Psychology from Adelphi University. He held research positions at the University of Wisconsin, the Philip Morris Inc., and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. In 1995, Dr. Mele moved into technology transfer as Chief, Office of Research and Technology Applications, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), where he guided WRAIR's technology transfer program on the development and commercialization of drugs, vaccines and medical devices in support of the Army's mission. In 2000, he became the first Director of Technology Transfer for the Army's Medical Research and Materiel Command at Fort Detrick. In this capacity, Dr. Mele oversees the Army Medical Command's patent licensing program and coordinates technology transfer activities among its component laboratories, hospitals and health care centers. Dr. Mele is a member of the Association of University Technology Managers, the Federal Laboratory consortium, and the Association of Government Toxicologists. He has published and presented the results of a variety of scientific investigations, and he is the recipient of the 2005 Department of Defense Technology Transfer Award.

Walt Bogdanich

Walt Bogdanich became the investigations editor for the Business and Finance Desk of The New York Times in January 2001. He was named an assistant editor for the paper's newly expanded Investigative Desk in 2003. Before joining The Times in 2001, he was an investigative producer for "60 Minutes" on CBS and before that for ABC News. Previously, he worked as an investigative reporter for The Wall Street Journal in New York and Washington. He has also worked for The Cleveland Press and The Plain Dealer. Bogdanich received the 1988 Pulitzer Prize for his articles in The Wall Street Journal on substandard medical laboratories. He received another Pulitzer Prize for national reporting in 2005 for his series, "Death on the Tracks," and in 2008 he was honored yet again for the series "A Toxic Pipeline," which tracked how dangerous and poisonous pharmaceutical ingredients from China have flowed into the global market. He has also won four George Polk Awards, an IRE Award, and an Overseas Press Club award. Bogdanich graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1975 with a degree in political science. He received a master's in journalism from Ohio State University in 1976.

Joseph M. Bruno

As the Managing Partner of Bruno & Bruno in New Orleans, Joe Bruno is widely regarded as a creative, energetic and outspoken advocate of victims' rights, particularly in difficult and complex cases of liability. He is a defender of class action procedures, seeing them as an important balancing tool in our complex society. Bruno is recognized as an authority in class actions, and particularly, in class action management. His expertise in difficult and complex litigation has led to his representation of numerous claimants in class action and mass joinder proceedings involving racial discrimination, occupational lung disease, products liability, and wage and hour violations. Bruno has been active in the Louisiana Trial Lawyers organization, having served on the Board of Governors for over twenty years. His goal is to build and maintain an aggressive firm that has the courage to fund and handle all types of complex and difficult litigation. Bruno is a 1977 graduate of Tulane University and at 1978 graduate of Tulane Law School.

John P. Coale

John Coale has long been a crusader for private citizens adversely affected by the negligence of large corporations, and a leading advocate of social and institutional reform through the court system. Coale entered the ranks of the nation's top tort lawyers in 1984, when he took on Union Carbide on behalf of thousands of victims of the tragic gas leak in Bhopal, India, and his resume since then is a testament to his dedication to the rights of tort victims and his quest for corporate accountability. Most notable among Coale's accomplishments is the role he played in obtaining billions of dollars in payments from the tobacco companies to the states and forcing a major change in the way tobacco companies do business. As a member of the Executive Committee for the Castano Tobacco Litigation, Coale was part of a pioneering effort to hold the tobacco companies responsible for misleading the public about the dangers of cigarettes and nicotine addiction. Coale was one of the principal negotiators in the $386 billion dollar tobacco settlement reached in June of 1997, which ultimately led the tobacco companies to agree to pay billions of dollars to the states and to reform their advertising and marketing practices. Coale was profiled on CBS's "60 Minutes" by Ed Bradley, and his work has been showcased in a number of books, magazines and newspapers, including The National Law Journal, GQ, People Magazine, The New York Times, The Washington Post and the Wall Street Journal. Coale was named a life member in the National Registry of Who's Who and was listed in Who's Who in Executives and Professionals. He's married to his former law partner, Greta Van Susteren, who is the host of the Fox News program "On the Record with Greta Van Susteren".

Jack E. Henningfield

Jack E. Henningfield, Ph.D., is a part-time professor of behavioral biology in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, in Baltimore, and Vice President, Research and Health Policy, at Pinney Associates, Bethesda, MD. Dr. Henningfield is a leading scientist in the field of drug addiction and has published more than 400 articles and several books, and contributed to numerous reports of the Surgeon General, World Health Organization, and National Cancer Institute. He has conducted pioneering studies on the addictive effects of nicotine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine and many other drugs. Henningfield has served as an expert to the World Health Organization, Food and Drug Administration, and White House, and has given invited testimony to both bodies of the U.S. Congress. Henningfield consults to GlaxoSmithKline on smoking cessation medicines and has a patent on a potentially more effective nicotine gum product. He also consults to pharmaceutical companies on how to design less addictive drugs for treating pain and other disorders, and how drugs can be more effectively marketed and regulated so as to reduce abuse, diversion, and addiction.

Russ Herman

Russ Herman is a Senior Partner of Herman, Herman, Katz & Cotlar, L.L.P. Herman graduated from Tulane University with a B.A. Degree and L.L.B. in 1966. In 1977, he was chosen "Outstanding Trial Lawyer" by the Louisiana Trial Lawyers Association, and was LTLA President in 1980-81. Herman is listed in the prestigious peer-reviewed publication, "The Best Lawyers in America" in the Personal Injury, Maritime, Complex Litigation and Appellate Trial Practice areas. In 2004, a jury returned a $591,000,000 verdict in Scott v American Tobacco, et al., on which Herman served as lead trial counsel. In 2005, he was selected from over 15,000 nation-wide nominees as one of American's 500 Leading Lawyers and Jurists by "Lawdragon" publications and in 2006, as one of America's Top 500 Litigators. In 2007, Herman was selected by "The Legal 500" as one of the 500 top litigators in the country and named 2007 Lawyer of the Year by Lawyers USA, citing his role as the lead negotiator for Plaintiffs in reaching the $4.85 Billion Settlement with Merck in the Vioxx litigation. And again in 2008, he was named of the 500 Top Litigators in the U.S. Herman is a principal faculty member of The Professional Education Group and has served on the faculties of the Practicing Law Institute and The National College of Trial Advocacy. The author of over 200 articles, papers and books in various aspects of Civil Trial Practice, Herman has lectured at Tulane, L.S.U., Loyola, Georgetown, Hastings and other law schools.

Philip J. Hilts

The author of six books, and currently serving as Director of MIT's Knight Science Journalism Fellowships, Phil Hilts is a prize-winning health and science reporter for both The New York Times and The Washington Post. Hilts began his journalism career in 1968, and during some 20 years at the Times and the Post and in more than 300 front page stories, Hilts has reported from such disparate locales as a mile deep in the Pacific Ocean while aboard the submersible Alvin, and a Zambian village where a traditional healer was "curing" AIDS. His articles on the inaccuracy of hypnosis-induced court testimony led to four men being freed from jail. Hilts was also the Times reporter who broke the story of the tobacco industry's 40-year coverup of its own research showing that tobacco was harmful and addictive. Hilts is the author of "Protecting America's Health: The FDA, Business, and One Hundred Years of Regulation". The only history of the Food and Drug Administration, this book tells the story of the fight over using science as the basis of public policy. It won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Science and Technology and was named a New York Times Notable Book of the Year. His most recent book, "Rx for Survival: Why We Must Rise to the Global Health Challenge", was a New York Times Notable Book of the Year. Hilts has been a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University and twice a fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is also a commentator on health and science issues for National Public Radio.

David A. Kessler

David Kessler is an American pediatrician, lawyer, author, and administrator. In 1990, he was appointed as Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration by President George H. W. Bush, and served in this position from November 8, 1990 until February 28, 1997. Kessler left the FDA to join the Yale School of Medicine as Dean from 1997--2003. From 2003-2007, he served as Dean and Vice-Chancellor at the University of California, San Francisco Medical School. After graduating from Amherst College in 1973, Kessler studied medicine at Harvard University, graduating with a M.D. degree in 1979. While at Harvard Dr. Kessler obtained a law degree J.D. in 1977 from the University of Chicago. While serving his residency in pediatrics at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, he worked as a consultant to Republican Senator Orrin Hatch from Utah, particularly on issues relating to the safety of food additives, and on the regulation of cigarettes and tobacco. From 1984-1990, Kessler simultaneously ran a 431-bed teaching hospital in New York City and taught at the Columbia Law School and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Kessler is well known for his role in the FDA's attempt to regulate cigarettes, which resulted in the FDA v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. case. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled that the FDA did not have the power to enact and enforce the regulations in question. Kessler published a book entitled "A Question of Intent", which gave his view of his time at the FDA, focusing on his attempts to change tobacco legislation and the interpretation of that legislation, and his battle with the then-illegal but still used Y1 strain of tobacco. Kessler's 2009 book "The End of Overeating" highlights for the consumer the amount of fat, salt and sugar in their food intake.

Myron Levin

A research consultant for ADDICTION INCORPORATED, Myron Levin is a veteran investigative journalist based in Los Angeles. He is founder and editor of FairWarning (, a nonprofit, online investigative news organization focused on safety and health issues. Previously, Levin spent more than 20 years as a staff writer at the Los Angeles Times, and before that reported for The Kansas City Star, the Rocky Mountain News and newspapers in Maine. He has won a number of honors and awards, including an Alicia Patterson Foundation fellowship and the National Press Club's 2008 Consumer Journalism Award. Levin began writing about the tobacco industry in 1987, when almost no one else was doing it. At the time, the prevailing view in newsrooms was that everyone knew smoking was dangerous, so what else was there to say? But beyond this obvious point was a rich, largely unexplored story -- about how an industry whose products were the leading cause of disease and death had become all but immune to legal liability and regulation. The landscape has shifted since then, but as a journalist still drawn to the story, Levin was grateful for the chance to participate in this absorbing and worthwhile film.

Michael C. Moore

Mike Moore was Attorney General of the State of Mississippi from 1988 -- 2004 and now practices law in the areas of dispute resolution and governmental relations with his own firm, Mike Moore Law Firm, LLC, in Flowood, Mississippi. Prior to opening his own firm, Mr. Moore practiced with Phelps Dunbar in Jackson, Mississippi. Before his sixteen years as Mississippi's Attorney General, Moore served as District Attorney on the Mississippi Gulf Coast for two terms. He received national attention in 1994, when he filed the first suit against thirteen tobacco companies making Mississippi the first state to insist that cigarette manufacturers reimburse the State for costs it incurred treating smoking-related illnesses. The suit resulted in a $4.1 billion settlement for the State of Mississippi. Mr. Moore also led the national tobacco litigation effort, which resulted in a $246 billion recovery for all of the states. Moore continues to stay very active in tobacco prevention work across America. He chairs The Partnership for a Healthy Mississippi, the State's tobacco prevention program that he founded after the settlement in 1998, and serves as chairman of the State's Tobacco Control Advisory Council. In 1994 his fellow Attorneys General bestowed upon him the prestigious Wyman Award, naming Moore the most outstanding Attorney General in the Nation. Moore also served as president of the National Association of Attorneys General. In 1998 the National Law Journal named him "Lawyer of the Year," and Governing Magazine named him "Public Official of the Year."

Matthew L. Myers

Matt Myers is President of the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, a leader in the fight to reduce tobacco use and its devastating consequences in the United States and around the world. In 1973, Mr. Myers began his career as a law clerk to Raymond Pettine, the Chief U.S. District Court Judge in Rhode Island. From 1974 to1977, he was an attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation National Prisoner Project, and from 1977 to 1980, he was their chief counsel. From 1981 to 1996, Mr. Myers was partner in the law firm of Asbill, Junkin & Myers in Washington, D.C. He specialized in complex commercial litigation and cases concerning employment law, the Privacy Act, health law, and First Amendment issues. In 1980, Mr. Myers joined the Federal Trade Commission in the Division of Advertising Practices and was responsible for the agency's tobacco-related activity. Later he was named the acting Deputy Assistant Director of the FTC's Division of Advertising Practices. From 1982 to 1996, Mr. Myers represented the Coalition on Smoking OR Health, first as its Staff Director and later as its General Counsel. During the 1980's, Mr. Myers worked on successful legislative campaigns to raise the federal excise tax on tobacco products, eliminating smoking on domestic airplane flights, strengthening cigarette health warnings, banning ads for smokeless tobacco on TV and requiring health warnings on smokeless tobacco ads and packages. In 1996, Mr. Myers helped to found the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids and has been with the Campaign since its inception. Over the last 25 years, Mr. Myers has participated in virtually every major national tobacco-related legislative effort and has worked with state tobacco prevention advocates and officials around the country. He holds a B.A. from Tufts University and a J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School.

Bruce Reed

Bruce Reed currently serves as Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff to the Vice President, having been appointed on January 14, 2011 to succeed Ron Klain. He most recently worked for the Administration as Executive Director of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, also known as the Bowles- Simpson Commission. Reed's previous work in the White House came during the Clinton-Gore administration, where he spent four years as the Chief Domestic Policy Advisor to the President, after two years as Deputy Domestic Policy Advisor and two years as Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy Planning. Prior to the Clinton- Gore administration, Reed was deputy campaign manager for policy for the Clinton- Gore campaign and previously served on the staff of then-Senator Al Gore from 1985- 1989. From 1990-1991, he served as policy director for the Democratic Leadership Council. Reed returned to the DLC in January 2001, where he served as Chief Executive Officer until his appointment as the Executive Director of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in 2010. A native of Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, and the son of Idaho State Senator Mary Lou Reed, Reed is a 1982 graduate of Princeton University and earned a master's degree in English Literature from Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar.

William Schultz

Bill Schultz is the Acting General Counsel of the Department of Health and Human Services. Before joining HHS, he was a Partner at Zuckerman Spaeder LLP. Schultz has also served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice, where he was responsible for overseeing all Civil Division appellate litigation and the Department's Tobacco Litigation Team. Prior to the Department of Justice, Schultz was the Deputy Commissioner for Policy for the Food and Drug Administration, where he was the principal advisor to the Commissioner on all significant policy issues and responsible for development and management of all regulations. Before joining the FDA, Schultz was the Counsel to the Committee on Energy and Commerce's Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, where he worked on health care, FDA, tobacco and trade legislation.

Keith Summa

Keith Summa is a senior producer at CBS News and has run the CBS News Investigative Unit since 2007. During that time his team has won two Emmy Awards for reports on the epidemic of veteran suicides and the mishandling of rape kits. Before that, Summa was a producer for ABC News and Peter Jennings Productions (1992 -2007), including producing the Bob Woodruff primetime special TO IRAQ AND BACK. Summa's documentaries for "Peter Jennings Reporting" include FROM THE TOBACCO FILES, exposing failures of the public health community, and NEVER SAY DIE: HOW THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY KEEPS ON WINNING, an investigation of the tobacco industry's political tactics. His exploits in the tobacco wars were chronicled in the book "Civil Warriors" by Dan Zegart. His extensive investigative reporting on tobacco, health care and firearms also appeared on World News Tonight, Good Morning America, and Nightline. Prior to his career in journalism, Summa was the Advocacy Director for the Coalition for the Homeless.

Henry A. Waxman

Henry Waxman is the U.S. Representative for California's 30th congressional district, serving in Congress since 1975. Before his election to Congress, he served six years in the California State Assembly. With the Democrats' victory in the 2006 midterm elections, Waxman became Chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee. He was the committee's ranking Democrat from 1997 to 2007. From 2009-2010, he served as the Chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee after defeating Chairman John Dingell in a secret vote of House Democrats. In January 2011, Republicans became the majority party in the House, ending Democratic chairmanships, but Waxman remains the committee's ranking member. A leader on health and environmental issues, Rep. Waxman has fought for universal health insurance, comprehensive Medicare and Medicaid coverage, tobacco regulation, air and water quality standards, pesticide regulations, and community rights to know about pollution levels. From 1979 to 1994, he chaired the Energy and Commerce Committee's Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Rep. Waxman has sponsored a long list of health bills that have been enacted into law. These measures include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, and the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act. Born in Los Angeles, CA, Waxman attended local public schools before receiving a B.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his J.D. from the same institution.

Ronald Wyden

Ronald Lee "Ron" Wyden is the senior U.S. Senator for Oregon, serving since 1996, and a member of the Democratic Party. He previously served in the United States House of Representatives from 1981 to 1996. Born in Wichita, Kansas, Wyden grew up in Palo Alto, CA, where he was a basketball star for Palo Alto High School. He attended UC Santa Barbara on a basketball scholarship. He later earned a B.A. degree with distinction from Stanford University and received a J.D. degree from the University of Oregon School of Law in 1974. Following law school, Wyden taught gerontology at several Oregon universities and co-founded the Oregon chapter of the Gray Panthers, an advocacy group for the elderly. He led that organization from 1974 to 1980, and also served as the director of the Oregon Legal Services for the Elderly, a nonprofit law service, from 1977 to 1979. Wyden was first elected to Congress in 1980 to represent Oregon's 3rd District. In 1996, he was elected to the U.S. Senate in a special election. He was sworn in on February 5, 1996, to the seat once held by his mentor, U.S. Senator Wayne Morse.

Sharon Y. Eubanks

A graduate of Georgetown University Law Center, Sharon Eubanks spent the first three years of her legal career litigating antitrust cases at the Federal Trade Commission, and the following twenty-two years at the U.S. Department of Justice. From 2000 to 2005, Eubanks served as lead counsel for the United States in the largest civil Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) enforcement action ever filed, United States v. Philip Morris USA, et al. Following a nine-month trial, the federal district court found that defendants, the major U.S. cigarette companies, violated the civil provisions of RICO and committed fraud on a massive scale. That decision was sustained on appeal, and the case continues before the federal district court on remedies issues. Her book about the federal tobacco litigation, "Continuing Bad Acts", will be published in 2012. Eubanks is currently Senior Litigation Counsel in the Washington D.C. office of Sanford Wittels & Heisler, LLP. She lives with her family in McLean, Virginia.

Steven C. Parrish

In 2008, Steve Parrish retired as Senior Vice President, Corporate Affairs, of Altria Group, Inc., a position he held since 1995. At Altria, Steve was responsible for the Altria family of companies' government relations, communications and corporate philanthropy. His previously served as Senior Vice President, Worldwide Regulatory Affairs, Philip Morris Companies Inc.; General Counsel and Senior Vice President, External Affairs, Philip Morris USA; and numerous other positions covering a range of legal, regulatory and public affairs issues. Before joining Philip Morris, Steve was a partner in the Kansas City, Missouri, law firm of Shook, Hardy & Bacon. Steve was the subject of a cover story in The New York Times Magazine (June 2006) and he has appeared on numerous national news programs such as Face the Nation, Meet the Press, and The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. He is Chairman of the Board of Directors of Safe Horizon, an internationally recognized leader in the field of victim assistance, domestic violence, child abuse, sexual assault and human trafficking. Steve is also a member of the Board of Governors of Milano School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy in New York City. A native of Moberly, Missouri, Steve received a B.A. degree in 1972 and a J.D. degree in 1975, both from the University of Missouri. He lives in Westport, Connecticut.

Mitchell Zeller

Mitchell Zeller has almost three decades of regulatory, legislative, and communications experience, working with federal health agencies on public health policy issues including the treatment of tobacco dependence, and the regulation of tobacco products and pharmaceuticals. From 1982 to 1988, he served as assistant director for Legal Affairs with the Center for Science in the Public Interest. From 1988 to 1993, Zeller was counsel to the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the House Government Operations Committee where he conducted oversight of federal health and safety agencies. From 1993 until June 2000, Zeller served as Associate Commissioner and director of the Food and Drug Administration's Office of Tobacco Programs and served as the FDA's representative on tobacco issues in all dealings with the Congress, federal and state agencies, public health groups and foreign governments. From June 2000 until August 2002, Zeller was executive vice president of the American Legacy Foundation, a public health foundation created by the November 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. Zeller has published papers in several leading medical and public health journals and is the recipient of numerous honors, including the Secretary's Award for Distinguished Service and the National Public Affairs Special Recognition Award from the American Heart Association. Zeller joined Pinney Associates in 2002, and currently serves as Vice President for Policy and Strategic Communications. He attended Dartmouth College and is a graduate of the American University Washington College of Law in Washington, D.C.

Crew Biographies

Charmaine Parcero (Executive Producer)

After graduating college, Charmaine started her career in the Los Angeles entertainment industry as an intern at Oxygen Media and the Sundance Institute. She next joined Acappella Pictures, first as an assistant to producer Charles Evans, Jr., working alongside him on various projects, including THE AVIATOR, through developing and producing ADDICTION INCORPORATED. A native San Franciscan, Parcero received a BA in Political Science and Sociology from the University of California -- Irvine, and she currently lives in New York City.

Devorah DeVries (Producer)

Devorah started her documentary career as Michael Moore's personal assistant in 1996. She went on to work as AP, PM, Line Producer and Producer on feature films, reality TV and feature documentaries. Her film highlights include THE BIG ONE (Michael Moore), ME AND ISAAC NEWTON (Michael Apted), HELL HOUSE (George Ratliff), ESCUELA (Hannah Weyer), and FACTOTUM (Bent Hamer), and SUMMERCAMP! (Bradley Beesley, Sarah Price) She has taken the amateur mahout course 3 times at the Thai Elephant Conservation Center.

Kate Dean (Line Producer, Recreations)

Kate Dean began her career producing two of three features directed by Ramin Bahrani, hailed by Roger Ebert as "the best new American director." She has since worked with Muskat Filmed Productions (ALL THE REAL GIRLS), Big Beach (LITTLE MISS SUNSHINE), and most recently Anonymous Content (BABEL, ETERNAL SUNSHINE OF THE SPOTLESS MIND). A maverick of the micro-budget, each film has been more critically acclaimed than the last. She is currently line producing Max Winkler's first feature starring Uma Thurman.

Peter Nelson (Director of Photography, Interviews)

Peter has photographed a wide variety of feature films, commercials and documentaries in a multitude of film and video formats. His signature naturalistic style has taken him around the world to capture life as it happens for fiction and non-fiction films. Feature credits include ART & COPY, SICKO, A TALE OF TWO PIZZAS, PIPE DREAM, SUITS and the cult New York romance ED'S NEXT MOVE that premiered at the Sundance Film Festival. He has done domestic and international documentary work for PBS, HBO, BBC and Granada Television. Recent commercial work includes campaigns for Dell, BlackRock, PBS, Stop and Shop, and Goldman Sachs. Other commercial credits include spots for Merrill Lynch, Lifetime, Coca-Cola, Champion, and Calvin Klein. Peter received a BFA in Film and Television from NYU's Tisch School of the Arts.

Igor Martinovic (Director of Photography, Recreations)

Igor was a director of photography on MAN ON WIRE, winner of ACADEMY AWARD - OSCAR for a documentary (2009); BAFTA for best British Film (2009), SUNDANCE FILM FESTIVAL 2008 and numerous other awards. In the Dramatic Competition of Sundance Film Festival 2008 Igor had another entry - the feature film PRETTY BIRD starring Paul Giamatti and Billy Crudup.

John Miller-Monzon (Story Producer)

A New York-based producer, researcher and development consultant, Miller-Monzon's current projects include THE GREATER GOOD, HUNGRY IN AMERICA, and MISSION BLUE. Past credits include Oscar winner THE COVE, Indie Spirit Award winner CRAZY LOVE, and the cult classic sitcom STRANGERS WITH CANDY. Additional credits include the Peabody Award winning doc miniseries BLACK MAGIC and the Emmy- nominated miniseries MARTIN SCORSESE PRESENTS THE BLUES: A MUSICAL JOURNEY and A DECADE UNDER THE INFLUENCE. A former film industry analyst, Miller-Monzon has edited several film-related books, including PAST IMPERFECT: HISTORY ACCORDING TO THE MOVIES. He trained extensively with the American Conservatory Theater before earning a B.A. at San Francisco State University and M.F.A. from Columbia University's prestigious M.F.A. program in filmmaking.